we conducted performance and safety tests on our products?
we've conducted on our Patent Pending Systems have produced
performance results that are consistent with findings reported
by government, university
and independent labs in the United States and
around the world.
How we perform tests
and build products:
We apply the principles
Statisical Process Control, Continuous Improvement and Robust
Design in every phase of product development.
all mileage improvements and other things. If you
want to know what these "other things are click HERE.
. We then hire independent testing
facilities to verify our findings.
If the testors can't validate our results,
we repeat the until everything works as designed.
then use independent third parties to validate our claims
of durability, dependability and ruggedness.
also partner with select customers for long-term field
Links To Additional
Combustion of a Gasoline–Hydrogen–Air Mixture in a Reciprocating
Internal Combustion Engine Cylinder and Determining the Optimum
L. N. Bortnikov
Abstract: This paper reports results of an analysis of experimental data
on the combustion of a gasoline–hydrogen–air mixture in a reciprocating
internal combustion engine cylinder. The completeness of combustion of
the mixture is shown to depend on the amount of hydrogen in the fuel
mixture and the composition and physicochemical properties of the
mixture. In particular, the conditions of addition of hydrogen to the
gasoline–air mixture with active chemical action on the combustion
process and the action of hydrogen as an additional fuel component are
determined. A dimensionless universal relation is proposed that allows
one to uniquely determine the initial composition of the fuel mixture
(hydrogen to gasoline ratio) to accomplish combustion of the fuel
mixture at the lean combustion limit.
using hydrogen from plasmatron fuel converters
L. Bromberga, D.R. Cohn, A. Rabinovich, J. Heywood
Abstract: Improvements in internal combustion engine and aftertreatment
technologies are needed to meet future environmental quality goals.
Systems using recently developed compact plasmatron fuel converters in
conjunction with state-of-the-art engines and aftertreatment catalysts
could provide new opportunities for obtaining substantial emissions
reductions. Plasmatron fuel converters provide a rapid response, compact
means to transform a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels (including
gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel) into hydrogen-rich gas.
Hydrogen-rich gas can be used as an additive ... in spark ignition gasoline engine vehicles by enabling
very lean operation or heavy exhaust engine recirculation. It may also
be employed for cold start hydrocarbon reduction. If certain
requirements are met, it may also be possible to achieve higher spark
ignition engine efficiencies (e.g., up to 95% of those of diesel
engines). These requirements include the attainment of ultra lean, high
compression ratio, open throttle operation using only a modest amount of
hydrogen addition. For diesel engines, use of compact plasmatron
reformers to produce hydrogen-rich gas ... could provide significant advantages. Recent tests of
conversion of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich gas using a low current
plasmatron fuel converter with non-equilibrium plasma features are
FORMATION AND RESTRAINT OF TOXIC EMISSIONS IN HYDROGEN-GASOLINE MIXTURE FUELED ENGINES
LI JINGDING, GUO LINSONG, and DU TIANSHEN
Abstract: A little amount of hydrogen supplemented to the gasoline-air
mixture can extend the flammability of the mixture, increase the rate of
flame propagation, accelerate the burning velocity of the lean mixture,
thus improving the economy ... and enhancing
In this paper, the mechanism of forming toxic emissions in spark
ignition engines is expounded on basis of the theory of chemical
dynamics of combustion. And the mechanism of which toxic emissions are
restrained in the course of the combustion of hydrogen-gasoline mixture
is discussed. And last, the experimental investigation results of
restraining toxic emissions are introduced.
FUEL CONSUMPTION AND EMISSION OF SI ENGINE FUELED WITH H2-ENRICHED GASOLINE
Y. Hacohen and E. Sher
Abstract: A study of the effect of the amount of hydrogen on the fuel
consumption and emission of a spark ignition (SI) engine is reported. In
the first stage, dynamometer test results for a wide range of engine
speeds, engine loads, equivalence ratio, and hydrogen enrichment under
steady-state operation were obtained, and the engine requirements for
minimum BSFC were specified. In the second stage, an onboard, online
hydrogen generator was developed and employed to provide the required
amount of hydrogen. The hydrogen was produced by a steam reforming
process. A detailed model for simulating a spark ignition engine fueled
with hydrogen-enriched gasoline was developed and used to predict the
optimal amount of hydrogen supplement as well as the corresponding MBT,
optimal throttle position,...
Improving the Spark-Ignition Engine
John B. Heywood
Engine Research Center - 2005 Symposium
University of Madison, Wisconsin
June 8-9, 2005
INFLUENCE OF THE ADDITION OF HYDROGEN AND OF A SYNTHESIS
GAS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROCESS OF COMBUSTION OF GASOLINE–AIR
MIXTURES UNDER CONDITIONS TYPICAL OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
A. N. Migun, A. P. Chernukho, and S. A. Zhdanok
Abstract: The influence of the addition of hydrogen and of a synthesis
gas on the basic parameters of combustion of gasoline-air fuel mixtures
is investigated theoretically. The possibility of feeding gasoline
internal combustion engines with lean fuel mixtures with a concentration
of 5 10 vol.% hydrogen is shown; this will greatly improve their
Performance of a spark ignition engine fuelled with reformate gas produced on-board vehicle
Enzo Galloni, Mariagiovanna Minutillo
Abstract: In recent years, the interest in the use of hydrogen, as an
alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines, has grown according to
energy crises and "other problems". By comparing the properties of
hydrogen and gasoline, it is possible to underline the possibilities,
for hydrogen–gasoline fuelled engines, of operating with very lean
mixtures, thus obtaining interesting fuel economy and "other problems"
In this paper, the performance of a spark-ignition engine, fuelled by
hydrogen enriched gasoline, has been evaluated by using a numerical
model. A multidimensional code (KIVA-3V) has been modified in order to
model the engine combustion process using a hybrid combustion model
adapted for dual fuelling. Based on computed results, the performance of
the engine has been evaluated in different operating conditions.
Furthermore, for the hydrogen enriched gasoline engine fuelling, the
hydrogen production on-board the vehicle has been considered. A
thermochemical model of a reforming system has been developed by means
of the Aspen Plus code. The conversion of gasoline to hydrogen has been
investigated and thermodynamic analysis of the reforming system has been
The thermal efficiency of the fuel processor and the efficiency of the
integrated reformer/SI engine system have been calculated.
Performance study of a four-stroke spark ignition engine working with both of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol as supplementary fuel
Maher Abdul-Resul, Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
Abstract: The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on
the performance and "other problems" of a four-stroke spark ignition
engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine
performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline
spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol.
The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce "other problems" with increase in the higher useful compression ratio and output
power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. The addition of 8 mass% of
hydrogen, with 30 vol% of ethyl alcohol into a gasoline engine operating
at 9 compression ratio and 1500 rpm causes a .... 58.5% reduction in
specific fuel consumption. Moreover, the engine thermal efficiency and
output power increased by 10.1 and 4.72%, respectively. When ethyl
alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which
can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this
causes a reduction in both, the break power and efficiency.
The addition of hydrogen to a gasoline-fuelled SI engine
T. D’Andreaa, P.F. Henshawa, D.S.-K. Ting
Abstract: The results of an experimental investigation involving the
addition of hydrogen to a gasoline-fuelled SI engine are reported. Up to
66% by volume (3.7% by mass) of hydrogen as fuel was added as part of
the air with little modification to the engine. Cylinder pressure traces
were used to calculate the indicated mean effective pressure and mass
fraction burned. Electrochemical analysers were used to measure the
concentration of "other problems" in the exhaust. The added hydrogen
resulted in improved work output and a reduction in burn duration and
cycle-to-cycle variation while operating under lean conditions
(φ<0.85). When operating closer to stoichiometric conditions
(φ>0.85) little difference in engine performance was seen. This
dependence of hydrogen addition effect on the fuel/air equivalence ratio
was confirmed by analysis of variance tests.
Thermal balance of a four stroke SI engine operating on hydrogen as a supplementary fuel
F. Yuksel, M.A. Ceviz
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of adding constant
quantity hydrogen to gasoline–air mixture on SI engine thermal balance
and performance. A four stroke, four-cylinder SI engine was used for
conducting this study.
Thermal balance tests were conducted for engine thermal efficiency, heat
loss through the exhaust gases, heat loss to the cooling water and
unaccounted losses (i.e. heat lost by lubricating oil, radiation), while
performance tests were in respect to the brake power, specific fuel
consumption and air ratio. Hydrogen supplementations were used with
three different and fixed mass flow rates; 0.129, 0.168 and 0.208 kg h−1
at near three-fourth throttle opening position and variable engine
speed ranging from 1000 to 4500 rpm. The results showed that
supplementation of hydrogen to gasoline decreases the heat loss to
cooling water and unaccounted losses, and the heat loss through the
exhaust gas is nearly the same with pure gasoline experiments.
Additionally, specific fuel consumption decreases, while the engine
thermal efficiency and the air ratio increase. Engine performance
parameters such as thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption
improved the level of the ratio of hydrogen mass flow rate to that of
gasoline up to 5%.